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The book Hanekawa is flipping through shows an extract from the preface of the book 大學章句(Da Xue Zhang Ju) by 朱熹(Zhu Xi), one of the most important peices of classic Chinese literature.
The book Hanekawa is flipping through is in Chinese, and every page is identical.
Oshino assigns Araragi the task of placing an ofuda on an altar. Ofudas, also known as "gofu," "shinpu," or simply "talismans," are strips of paper, wood, cloth, or metal with the name of a god or the shrine's name itself, on it. They are typically placed on shrines as a sort of blessing, similar to crosses in other religions.
Title cards in this episode show Kanbaru's oddity to be Romanized as the "Rainy Devil." In the previous episode, however, the term was Romanized as the "Rainey Devil."
The yaoi books Kanburu has in her room are entitled Barazoku which is an actual homosexual magazine in Japan.
On the way to Oshino's place, Kanbaru mentions "being ready to take your 'Uke' any time." Uke and Seme are roles in male homosexual relationships in which the Uke takes on the passive roles and traits, while the Seme is the more active of the two. That said, it is rather peculiar for Kanbaru to use such terms, since she is suggesting what would technically be a heterosexual relationship with Araragi.
The assignment that Senjougahara is writing is actually the Gettysburg Address.
Senōgahara mentions "freeters" and "NEETs" during her talk to Araragi, while studying. A freeter is a Japanese expression for someone between age 15 and 34 lacking a full-time job, or are unemployed entirely (excluding homemakers and students). "NEET" holds a similar meaning, originating from the UK and standing for "Not in Employment, Education or Training."
On the bookshelf in Hitagi's apartment all of the books has different books with visible titles have themes related to death and supernatural. The books are also differnt everytime the bookcase is shown.
Senjougahara mentions that her favorite author is Yumeno Kyusaku. The author in question is actually Sugiyama Taido, using "Yumeno Kyusaku" (literally "a person who always dreams") as a sort of pen name when writing detective novels.
When Koyomi Araragi refers to Hitagi Senjougahara as a 'tsundora' he is refering to the Japanese word for tundra often used in otaku culture to describe a character archetype who is cold, detached and often uncaring towards others.
When Hitagi Senjougahara refers to herself as a 'Tsundere' she is refering to the Japanese character archetype which describes a person with a combative personality that suddenly becomes modest and loving when triggered by some cause such as being alone with someone they like.