The real world brands/companies/products that can be seen in the final scene are National Geographic, MSNBC, Foot Locker, Swatch, LG, HSBC, Coke and Kodak.
The rebel Centurions are painted with a red stripe across their armor so as to distinguish them from Cavil's Centurions.
At approximately 14:05 into the episode, a view of the fleet is shown. The yellow ship the camera sweeps past is the Kodiak from the PC game, "Command & Conquer: Tiberian Sun".
Glasses and binoculars
When Laura Roslin looks through the binoculars, she stops and says that she wants to see more detail. She puts on her glasses and then continues to look through the binoculars. It's unclear whether this is an "error". While binoculars can correct for nearsightedness and farsightedness, they do not correct for astigmatism. It's entirely plausible that Roslin has astigmatism. If so, then she would have needed her glasses to look through the binoculars.
Showrunner and executive producer Ronald D. Moore made a cameo appearance in the final scene as the man reading the "National Geographic" magazine.
A re-scored version of the theme music from the original Battlestar Galactica series was played as the fleet left the planet's orbit for the final time.
Dee (Kandyse McClure) appears in two of the flashbacks in this final episode.
Doc Cottle's first name is finally revealed to be Sherman.
As per the wishes she expressed in "Maelstrom", Starbuck posted her own picture next to Kat's on the wall of fallen friends, signifying that she is beginning to believe and accept that she did in fact die on Earth.
The piece of music that Slick plays and Starbuck refers to as "Nomion's Third Sonata, Second Movement" was actually Stu Phillips' "Exploration," which served as part of the opening theme to the original Battlestar Galactica in 1978.
The Final Five escaped the nuclear holocaust on Earth several thousand years prior to the events of the series. They developed resurrection technology, and traveled (without faster-than-light drives, hence the amount of time it took) to the Twelve Colonies to convince the humans not to repeat their mistake and develop artificial life again. They were too late, as the humans were already at war with the Centurions, who had begun to create humanoid life (the Hybrids).
The Final Five gave the Centurions resurrection technology and developed eight humanoid models, the seven known models and "Number Seven," or "Daniel." The Number Seven line was apparently wiped out entirely by the Cavils (Number Ones).
So, apparently (as of this episode), there were actually 13 Cylon models, though only 12 now exist.
This episode opened with a completely new introductory sequence with the following text:
This has all happened before
and it will happen again
The Cylons were created by Man
Then they vanished
Forty years later they came back
50,298 human survivors
Hunted by the Cylons
Eleven models are known
One was sacrificed
There are 35 civilian ships left in the Colonial fleet.
Discrepancy with the number of remaining survivors
The main title sequence indicated that there were 39,643 remaining survivors in the fleet but the whiteboard in President Roslin's office on Colonial One showed a survivor count of 39,644.
Goof: An overhead boom microphone is visible briefly in a scene in Adama's quarters about 18 minutes into the episode (broadcast version). Admiral Adama and Lee Adama are discussing Roslin and the plan to use Cylon jump drive technology when the microphone enters the shot.
When Gaeta drops the medicine container in the CIC and hobbles after them, the shadow of his amputated "ghost limb" is visible on the floor.
Orion Constellation: Near the end of the episode, when the rebel Cylon base ship makes the final jump back and Adama looks out his viewport, the Orion constellation appears big and bright right next to the base ship.
The date shown on the vital signs monitor next to Roslin's sickbed reads 27 May 2006.
The Demetrius was established to be a sewage recycling ship (as stated by Helo in the recap at the beginning of the episode), but as the crew debates whether to join the rebel Cylons, Athena calls the ship a freighter.
The Orion Constellation can once again be seen in this episode, right after the Demetrius runs into the Cylon Heavy Raider.