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The show is way out there, way far away. After all, it's in Outer Space.
When you look at the night sky on a clear dark night, you can see thousands of stars. There are far more
than you could count. And, they are way out there. They are very, very far away. It's about the hardest
thing to imagine about space. Let's talk about the nearest star to us, the Sun. If somehow outer space
were not an icy cold vacuum with nothing to eat, drink, or breathe, and we could drive there in a car, to
get to the Sun at freeway speed of 100 kilometers/hour (61 miles/hour), it would take171 years of driving
without stopping to sleep or get gas out in the near nothingness of space. That's just to the Sun. To get
to even the closest star, Proxima Centauri, would take 40,000 years. On top of that, most things, billions
and billions of stars, are much, much farther away than that! It is just astonishing.
How do we know that everything is so far away? We have watched the sky for centuries. By watching
carefully the motions of the points of light across the sky, humans have been able to estimate how far
away objects are. It took us years, and years, but you can watch this episode in less than 29 minutes.
Bill might seem a little far out in this episode. Maybe he's getting spacey.
A hot-air balln ride and a trip to the aquarium help Bill Nye explain why things float
We can dish the real dirt about dinosaurs, thanks to fossils - traces of theses astonishing animals.
Dinosaurs did not print newspapers. They did not take family snapshots or videos 65 million years ago.
The only proof scientists have of dinosaurs is their fossils, especially bones. They would never have
survived billions of years waiting for some human to trip over them. Luckily for paleontologists (scientists
who study the past), now and then dinosaurs died, and their bones were covered by mud, or sand. As
the bones sat protected from weather, they absorbed minerals from the soil around them. The minerals
chemically worked their way into the bones. Millions of years later, we can find them and dig them up.
Humans were not around to see what actually killed the ancient dinosaurs. Many scientists think a
meteorite, or lots of meteorites, crashed into the Earth. When the space rocks hit the ground, they made
big craters and kicked up a lot of dust and dirt. If enough dust flew into the air, sunlight couldn't get
to Earth, and the plants died off. Without plants for food and oxygen, the dinosaurs died. The meteorite
impact is just a theory, but a very, very good one. We may never be sure what really happened because,
as this episode of Bill Nye the Science Guy points out: dinosaurs and humans did not live at the same
Don't just go with the flow. Settle down on the crust.
Imagine a world without any crust. There would be no pies, just goopy filling, no bread, no hamburger
buns, and no you or me. That's right. You, and every living thing we know of, live on or in the Earth's crust.
And, living things need the Earth's crust to survive. Let's look at the science of the surface.
By carefully studying the Earth's surface, scientists have discovered that the Earth is made up of gigantic
layers. At the center of the Earth, there is a core ï¿½ a big ball of solid metal mostly iron.
The core is surrounded by a layer of liquid iron and other minerals. We usually just call it the outer core.
The next layer, around the outer core is called the mantle. You may have seen a mantle above a fireplace.
Well, the mantle is above the Earth's hot core places. The mantle is gooey hot nearly melted rock that
flows the way asphalt does on a hot summer day. Scientists often say that the mantle is plastic. It bends.
We call the mantle's nearly liquid rock magma. When magma flows onto the surface, on top of the crust,
we call it lava.
The Earth's crust is thin, only about 100 kilometers thick. If the Earth were the of a peach, the crust
would only be as thick as the peach's skin (and not as fuzzy). If the Earth hadn't cooled enough for the
crust to form on its surface, we wouldn't be here. Neither would any living thing we know of.
Scientists have never been able to dig or drill down through the crust to the mantle. Driving 100 kilometers
is easy. Drilling that far through solid rock is hard. Well, it's solid rock. But, we can study the inside of the
Earth by observing volcanoes and geysers. The heat that melts rock into magma, and turns underground
water into steam, comes from under the crust.
We haven't even begun to scratch the surface. Watch Bill Nye the Science Guy to find out more about
"The Earth's Crust."
Bill's all charged up about the "Static Electricity" show.
It happens to all of us. You're causally walking along, maybe dragging your feet a little, when you reach
out to shake a friend's hand and - ZAP! Both you and your friend get shocked. The spark is static electricity,
a buildup of charged electrons.
Electrons are a part of all atoms, the building blocks of all stuff, including you and me. All electrons have
a negative charge. Negatively charged electrons push away from other negatively charged electrons. Like
charges repel each other. When electrons build up in an area, a charge builds up, and it's just waiting to
be released. This buildup of charge is called static electricity.
Charges can jump around between things, especially when things are rubbed together. When you drag
your feet on the carpet, electrons from the carpet jump onto you. As the charge builds up, the electrons
get too close to each other, and they need a place to escape. They get their chance when you touch
something or someone else. The electrons jump onto your pal, making both of you jump at the electric
Watch the "Static Electricity" episode ï¿½ it's shocking!.
It's time for a heart-to-heart talk about blood and circulation with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Your blood is your bud. Without blood, your skin would dry up and fall off, your internal organs would die,
and your brain would be kaput. Blood gives every cell in your body the food and oxygen it needs to survive.
Blood also cleans up after our cells by carrying away waste. Blood even protects your body from disease.
What more could you ask from a friend?
Blood patrols your entire body. Blood is pushed around by a powerful pump called the heart. Every time
your heart lub-dubs, blood is propelled through tubes called arteries, capillaries, and veins. Your heat
pushes your blood in a complete loop around your body about 2,000 times every day.
Your heart is a muscle, and, like all muscles, it can get stronger. A healthy heart needs exercise to stay
strong. An average heart pumps about 70 times a minute, but a healthy, well-exercised heart pumps 50
or 60 times a minute. Healthy hearts don't have to work as hard to move your blood around. Now that's
Be sure to watch the "Blood and Circulation" episode, because Bill Nye really takes science to heart.
Lighten up. It's the "Light and Color" episode.
Without light, we wouldn't be able to see. It would be like living in a room with no windows, doors, or
lamps. There's an old saying, "We don't see things; we see light bouncing off of things." We see things,
and colors, when light bounces off things and into our eyes. White light, like the light from the Sun, is
made up of all the different colors of light blended together. When white light hits something white, almost
all of the light bounces into our eyes, and we see the color white.
Things are different colors because some light bounces off and other light gets absorbed.
An orange is orange because it absorbs all different colors of light except orange light.
Grass is green because it absorbs all different colors of light except green light.
Bill Nye's lab coat is blue because it absorbs all different colors of light except blue light. All colors,
including black, are made in the same way. It's just a matter of reflecting or absorbing light.
Science will "color" your world with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
It doesn't matter if it's spring, summer, winter, or fall - Bill Nye is always in season.
Every year, we experience the seasons. Some months have snow and rain, while other months have
warmth and sunshine. Temperatures go from cold, to woarm, to cold again ï¿½ winter, spring, summer, and
fall. The cycle of the seasons takes one year, and the Earth takes one year to go around the sun.
Coincidence? No way.
The Earth's orbit around the Sun is flat, as though our planet were spinning over a tabletop. Compared
with flat plane of its orbit, the Earth is tilted. Its axis, the imaginary line between the North and South
Poles, is tipped over a bit. In June, the north half of the Earth (the Northern Hemisphere) is tilted toward
the Sun, and it's summertime in places like Nye Labs in the United States. Meanwhile, the south half (the
Southern Hemisphere) is tilted away from the Sun, and it's winter there, in places like Australia and South
The Earth's orbit isn't quite a perfect circle. It's like a circle that's been squeezed a little. It changes the
Earth's distance from the Sun. We're closest to the Sun in December, when it's summer in the Southern
Hemisphere. The tilt affects the seasons more than the slightly oblong orbit.
Neither rain, nor sleet, nor wind, nor snow can stop Bill Nye or the Earth's Seasons.
Some answers, my friend, do in fact, blow in the wind.
A cool breeze is great on a hot summer day. A cold winter wind can chill you until you can't stop shivering.
Where does all that wind come from? It starts with the Sun. Energy from the Sun warms the Earth and
the atmosphere, the air, above it. As the world turns into darkness each night, the atmosphere cools off.
The molecules in a mass of warm air are more spread out than the molecules of air in a cold air mass.
So cold air is heavier than warm air. Cool air masses squeeze warm air up. That's why you may hear
people say, "Warm air rises." The Sun warms the Earth with huge amounts of heat each day. And, the
Earth is spinning. So, as air masses move up and down, they get nudged sideways along the Earth's
surface at the same time. Try drawing a straight line on a spinning ball. It'll curve. The same thing happens
to make wind.
Air travels all over the Earth moving across deserts, up and down mountains, through valleys, and over
the oceans. These features churn the atmosphere and make wind as well, picking up and releasing water.
That's why it rains, snows, sleets, and hails.
To survive, we humans have to handle tornadoes, hurricanes, and typhoons every year. There is a huge
amount of energy in the wind. That's why humans harness the wind's energy with sails, wind turbines
(windmills), and kites.
What Bill Nye will show about the wind will blow you away.
How fish live, breathe and survive in an enviornment hostile to people
What is the difference between a lake and a pond? Where does the water in a lake or pond come from? What happens when a lake overflows? How do lakes and ponds support a myriad of lifeforms? Bill Nye the Science Guy answers these questions and many more.
In this show, you can Bone up on Muscles.
When you clicked on the Nye Labs web site to read this, you used your bones and muscles. Without them,
you can't click, surf, or even sigh. Bones and muscles work together, or you aren't going anywhere.
Muscles always pull, even when you push on something like a door somewhere in your body your arm
and leg muscles are in tension. They are all attached to bones, and those bones are pushing; they're in
compression. By pulling on bones you can breathe, talk, and move all over the world.
Your bones support your weight like beams of steel or wood. They're stiff and strong. Rigid as they might
seem though, they do flex. And, if you bang one hard enough, it swells up. You have a lump. That's because
bones are full of blood vessels. Bones are not solid like rocks or skeletons in a dinosaur museum. Bones
flex and grow. In fact, putting healthy amounts of stress on your bones is good for them. The flexing helps
them get nutrients and stay strong through your whole life
Your muscles are bundles of fibers. As you use your muscles, the fibers absorb nutrients from your blood.
If you work your muscles hard, your muscle cells absorb extra nutrients and they grow strong. Bones and
muscles let us push, pull, breathe, and dance. Go flex your muscles. You'll know it's good for you; you'll
feel it in your bones.
Bill Nye uses his bones and muscles to pull you into this show!
In this episode, Bill talks about Motion and how it works.
It's time for Bill Nye to shed a little light on electricity.
Electricity might seem mysterious, but once you understand the science the light goes on (so to speak).
You flip a switch, and the lights turn on. You push the play button, and your personal stereo starts playing
music. When you flip the switch or push play, you start a flow of electrons. Electricity is the flow of
electrons, and electrons are very tiny charged particles. Electrons are found in atoms, the tiny pieces that
all stuff is made from. We can make electrons flow in two ways. Batteries make electricity by mixing up
chemicals -- making a chemical reaction that forces electrons to move in a path from the battery to the
personal stereo and back to the battery. Electricity that turns on lights in your home is made by power
plants. Most power plants use big machines called generators to make electrons by twirling wire in a
magnet. The magnet makes electrons in the wire move around, creating electricity. Electrons really know
how to go with the flow.
Electricity sure gets Bill charged up, so be sure to watch the show!
What are germs and where do they come from? Bill Nye merely scratches the surface as he uncovers bacteria, viruses, and information about the body's defenses. The best defense, however, is staying clean!
Things sure are heating up at Nye Labs.
Snow cones, flowers, hot dogs, people -- everything is made of molecules. No matter what they're in, solid, liquid, or gas, molecules are always moving, even if just a little bit. The speed of the molecules depends on their temperature. Cold things have slow-moving molecules, while hot things have fast-moving molecules. In fact, temperature is really a measurement of molecule speed. For a cold thing to get warm, its molecules have to speed up.
Heat moves in three different ways -- conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the flow of heat between two solid objects that are touching. Heat conducts from your warm fingertips into a cold can of soda. Convection is the transfer of heat with a liquid or gas. A hot bath feels warm all over not just where you're sitting. Convection also happens naturally. When air gets warmed by a hot burner, it's molecules speed up and spread out. Then, cold air molecules squeeze the warm spread-out molecules up. That's why people say hot air rises. It's natural convection. Radiation is when heat beams or radiates from a warm object to cold surroundings. Sit in front of a window at night. Hold your hand up with your palm facing the window, then twist your wrist so your palm faces inside. You'll feel the heat radiate from your hand into the dark outside.
Bill Nye the Science Guy shows you that the science of heat is hot.
Look no further ... Bill Nye is on the ball - the eyeball.
For their small your eyes do an important job. By working with your brain, your eyes can tell the
difference between thousands of different colors. They can follow a fast-moving hockey puck across the
ice. They are even sending messages to your brain about what you're reading right now. Eyes work a lot
like a camera. They take in light, focus light, and make images. With help from the brain, your eyes help
understand the world around you.
Light bouncing into your eye passes through an opening called the pupil. If you look in the mirror, your
pupil is the black area in the middle of your eye. The pupil can open or close, depending on the brightness
of the light. After passing the pupil, the light is focused onto the back of your eye by the lens, a thin layer
of cells. On the back of your eye are special cells called rods and cones that are sensitive to light. These
cells send electrical messages to your brain through your big optic nerves. Having two eyes lets us look
at the same features from two slightly different angles. We can see how far away things are. Then it's up
to your brain to decipher what exactly you're looking at.
The "eyes" have it -- Bill Nye's "Eyeball" episode is outta site!
Listen up, scientists. Bill Nye is here to make some noise in the "Sound" episode.
Your vocal cords do it. Speakers playing rock music do it. Even a school bell does it. They all vibrate; and
that's how sound is made. Plucking a stretched rubber band makes the rubber band vibrate. Air molecules
around the rubber band move, pushing other air molecules. As the rubber band continues to vibrate, it
sends waves of sound through the air. It's a lot like the ripples you see when you drop a rock into a pond.
You hear sound when rippling air pushes on tiny bones in your ears. Nerves in your ears send a message
to your brain about the sound you're hearing.
Different sounds make different patterns of waves with different distances between them. Plucking,
banging, whispering, and yelling are all vibrations in air, yet they all sound very different. Sound vibrations
can be thought of as waves moving through molecules. Low-pitched sounds have big gaps between
waves, while high-pitched sounds have waves that are bunched together. Loud sounds have more
molecules moving and more energy than soft sounds.
Sound is much more than music. It's not just noise...it's science.
Take time to digest this show.
They say that your food is no more inside you than a pencil is inside a donut, when it's poked through
the hole. Instead of the food going in you, food goes through you. But, all the energy you get to live and
grow comes from your food. All the chemicals that become your body and brain as you get bigger, come
from your food. You get these vital chemicals through a process called "digestion." Your body breaks
food down and grabs all the nutrients you need from it. Then, your body gets rid of what's left over.
Digestion starts in your mouth. You begin breaking food down by breaking it into pieces with your teeth
and jaw muscles. Your saliva (your spit) is full of chemicals that react with the chemicals in food and
make them break apart. Then you swallow. Your food goes down a tube (your esophagus) to your stomach,
where powerful hydrochloric acid breaks it down further into a mushy mash we call chime (kime). From
there, the chime goes into your intestines, and that's where your body starts to absorb the nutrients you
need. Eating is complicated. For your body to have energy to do work, your digestive system has to do
some work. So take care of it. Then, you'll have energy to play.
Chew it up; soak it in acid; use those chemicals to watch Bill.
Next time you throw a ball in the air, and it doesn't fly off into outer space, thank gravity.
Right now, you and everything in the room where you are, is getting pulled down by gravity. If you don't
believe it, push a book of your desk. It will go plummeting toward the center of the Earth. It's gravity. The
Earth's mass, the stuff it's made of, creates gravity. It's pulling down on you and every other object you
can see; it's even pulling down on the air and the ocean. Not only that, you and every atom of every thing
around you has gravity. So, the objects and atoms are all, ever so slightly, pulling up on the Earth!
Without gravity, there would be no weight. When you step on a bathroom scale, the scale is getting
squeezed between you and the Earth. The scale measures how strong this mutual attraction is. Gravity
makes a force that pulls objects together.
Not only is gravity pulling on every atom and molecule of everything around us, it pulls over huge, gigantic
distances. The planets are held in the orbits around the Sun by gravity. The Sun's mass and the mass of
the Earth create enough gravity to hold us in orbit, even though we're 150 million kilometers away. The
gravity for the Earth, all the other planets in our Solar System, and all the stars and galaxies in the Universe
has been pulling steadily for billions of years.
Since gravity only pulls, and since gravity pulls on every speck of matter, when there's enough matter in
one place like a planet or moon, gravity makes them form into a ball or sphere. The reason the Earth, the
Moon, the Sun, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto are all round is that their own gravity pulls evenly in all directions
Bill Nye pulls you into this showï¿½ with Gravity!
Surf's up! Get the current information as Bill Nye explains
why oceans are salty and explores the ocean currents.
Go with the flow of ocean currents with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Most of the Earth is covered with water - we're talking 71% of the entire Earth, and most of that water is in oceans. It depends how you count, but you cay say that there are five oceans on Earth - the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian, the Arctic, and the Antarctic. They are all connected into one World Ocean by the flow of ocean currents.
Ocean water is moving around all the time. Some of the moving water forms rivers in the ocean.
Oceanographers, scientists who study oceans, call these rivers of ocean water "currents". Currents help sea animals move around, they bring up deep ocean water with lots of nutrients for small animals to eat, and they push warm and cold water around, creating different climates in the oceans.
As the sea surface gets warmed by the Sun, water evaporates, but salt stays in the sea. The salt makes the water heavier, and it sinks, squeezing other masses of water up. Wind blowing over sea drags huge expanses of ocean water all over the planet. Without ocean currents, our weather, our world, would look very different.
In the sea of science shows, the Science Guy show knows how to flow.
They're on your refrigerator, they're inside your computer, and you're even standing on one right
now. They're magnets, and forget about being repulsed. Bill Nye the Science Guy's "Magnetism" episode
is totally attractive.
All magnets have certain things in common. All magnets have two poles - north and south. You could
take a magnet and break it into pieces and all of the pieces would have north and south poles. Ever play
with two magnets? If you hold them with one magnet's north pole facing the other's south pole, they will
stick together. If you put two of the same poles together, the magnets will push apart. With magnets,
opposite poles attract, and "like" poles repel.
Ever wonder why the Earth has a North and South Pole? The Earth's hot, churning, iron core is like a giant
magnet. The magnetic force of the Earth stops a lot of harmful radiation from reaching us. Charged
particles streaming from the Sun get pulled down by the Earth's magnetic field, creating the Northern and
Southern Lights. Near the Arctic and Antarctic the sky often glows with beautiful colors. Magnets are used
to make electricity. Video and audio cassette tapes are made with plastic that is magnetized. Computer
disks store data with magnetized coatings. Television screens control beams of electrons with magnets.
All compasses have a magnet inside that lines up with the Earth's magnet.
Don't forget to watch the "Magnetism" show - Bill Nye's science can really stick with you.
Bill Nye discusses how animals move.
Topics include arteries, chambers and the importance of keeping heart healthy. We even get to see a sonogram of Bill's heart.
Don't stay in the dark - Bill Nye will help you absorb the science of light optics.
Light is energy that normally moves in a straight line, but often something gets in the way. When light runs
into something, three things can happen - the light can bounce off, it can go through, or it can be absorbed.
Often all three things happen at the same time.
Light bounces off mirrors. You see yourself in a mirror when light bounces off your face, into the mirror,
and then into your eyes. Light goes through glass. If the glass is bent or curved, the light gets bent on
its way out of the glass. The glass in a magnifying glass or a pair of eyeglasses is curved so that it bends
light, making things look bigger. More light is absorbed by dark-colored things than by light-colored things.
Colors are made when some light is absorbed while other light is bounced back. Black things look black
because when light hits them, they absorb almost all of the light. In outer space, there are objects with
so much mass, so much material in them, that their gravity can bend the path of beams of light.
Be sure to brighten your day with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Bill Nye's not here to bug you - he just wants to tell you about insects.
Do you know when you're looking at an insect? All insects have six legs, three body segments, antennae, and an exoskeleton. Insects don't have bones. Instead, they have hard shells called exoskeletons. Like a little suit of armor, an exoskeleton protects the insect's body and also keeps it from drying out. Although people call any crawling critter with an exoskeleton a "bug", the "true bugs" are insects that have special mouth parts for piercing and sucking. And, spiders are not bugs or even insects. They're built differently with only two main body parts and eight legs instead of six.
If you think you have a wild time growing up, take a look at an insect's life. Most insects go through at least four stages of growth -- egg (little round thing), larva (a bit like a worm), pupa (insect in a cocoon), and adult. It's a long road to maturity for an insect.
Everyone's buzzing about the "Insects" episode. Don't miss it.
Are you tense? Need some structure to your life? Then tune in to Bill Nye the Science Guy as he
explains the science of structures.
All structures give support or create a shape. You can find structures everywhere. Bridges, buildings,
chairs, shoes, plants, spiderwebs, tables, and even your own body are all structures. A structure's shape,
and what it's made of depend on what the structure does and how strong it needs to be.
When structures give support, they either experience a pull (tension) or a push (compression). Structures
in tension, such as ropes, cables, or blimps are made from stuff that is good at pulling. The materials in
tension are usually thin. Structures under compression, such as elephant legs and courthouse columns,
are made from hard stiff stuff. Compared to structures under tension, structures under compression are
much thicker. When it comes to structures, form (the and shape) depends on function (what it does).
Build support for Bill by watching the "Structures" episode.
Bill Nye looks at how the brain controls the body and stores information
Bill is practically exploding with excitement about the "Chemical Reactions" show.
Every single thing around you is made of chemicals. Plants, rocks, computers, food, and you are bunches
of chemicals. All chemicals are built with elements, the 109 different symbols on the Periodic Table. Different
combinations of elements make different chemicals.
Lots of times, chemicals just sit around, but sometimes, when certain chemicals get together, they react.
Chemical reactions take the starting chemicals and end up with new chemicals. Sometimes chemical
reactions are hard to miss. Explosions, burning, color changes, and gas are all good signs that a reaction
is going on. Some chemical reactions are less obvious - changes in temperature, a different smell, or
differences in taste are clues that a chemical reaction is happening. The key is to figure out if you could
get back the same chemicals you put in. If the answer is no, you've got a chemical reaction on your hands.
Just be sure to wash it off!
With Bill Nye the Science Guy, chemical reactions are a blast.
Bill Nye explains garbage and how it is a growing concern. He also demonstates ways of reducing the amount of garbage produced.
Bill Nye explains the atmosphere and the layers that compose it.
Learning about science can be hard work, but simple machines can make it easier. Let Bill Nye
push and pull you around ramps, levers, screws, and pulleys.
Simple machines simply make work easier by directing forces over distances. Instead of lifting a heavy
box upstairs, you can hook it to some ropes and pulleys and pull it up. Or you can get a ramp and slide
it upstairs. Either way, it's less sweat to use the pulleys or the ramp than it is to lift the box straight up
by yourself because the force you need is more spread out. Levers, ramps, screws, wheels, wedges, and
pulleys are all simple machines designed to direct forces.
With simple machines we don't have to push or pull as hard, but we have to push or pull over a longer
distance. It's easier to walk up a long set of stairs to the top of the Empire State Building than it would
be to climb a ladder to the top, but the set of stairs would be much longer than the ladder.
Simple machines are simply scientific.
SUMMARY COMING SOON
How breathing supplies the body with the oxygen it needs
Ecosystems are areas where things live. Ecosystems that are biodiverse are home to a variety of
plants and animals. A healthy ecosystem is one with a lot of biodiversity.
Imagine if humans could only eat one kind of food, say corn. We'd be in big trouble if all the corn
disappeared. Besides not having anything to munch on at the movies, we'd have nothing to eat at all.
Luckily, our ecosystem covers a big part of the Earth, and there are lots of different plants to eat. Ecosystems
are not as simple as one living thing eating another, as the corn example. The lives of animals and plants
are intertwined - what happens to one animal can have an impact on all sorts of living things.
As humans, we have a big effect on the other living things around us. We are the only animals to leave
lots of stuff around, such as houses, cars, and malls. It's important for us to think about the choices we
make and how they will affect the other living things around us. Remember: The Earth is not just our home,
it's home to all living things. Without those other living things, there would be no you or me.
Things that fly need air. Even though we walk through it, breathe it, and sneeze it, air seems to be a whole bunch of nothing. But air is there, and it's powerful. Balloons inflate because air presses on the insides and outsides of the balloon. Air pressure in tires supports the weight of bikes, buses, trucks, cars, and planes. But air doesn't need to be inside something to exert pressure. Air that moves around pushes, too.
What do birds, planes, kites, Frisbees, and helicopters have in common? They fly because moving air creates lift, or a push up. Airplane wings are shaped to push air down. The momentum of the air going down pushes wings up. Air above the wing gets going faster than the air underneath. Fast-moving air zips along, without pushing as hard side to side or up and down. The slow air pushes up from below harder than the fast air pushes down from above ... and you're airborne!
Every flying thing, from the tiniest flying insect to the biggest airplane, uses momentum and these differences in air pressure to fly. The pressure force is called the Bernoulli Effect, named after the scientist who discovered it. Without it, we'd be grounded.
So don't miss the "Flight" show -- where Bill Nye takes you up, up, and awaaaay.
Bill Nye talks about forests all over the world. He also explains the various parts of the forest and how they all link together.
Learning about skin science is no sweat.
It's gigantic. It's gargantuan. It's your skin. It's your body's biggest organ. If you could lay your skin out
flat, it would cover about one and a half square meters. Your skin stops you from drying out, protects you
from the weather, and keeps bacteria and viruses from getting inside your body.
Your skin is also your personal air conditioner and heater all in one. Sweating cools you off. When you're
hot, glands in your skin push a mixture of water and other chemicals onto the surface of your skin. When
the water evaporates, it takes some of the heat with it, and you're cooler. When you're too cold, your skin
muscles start twitching. Shivering makes your body warm up.
Without skin, you wouldn't be able to feel the difference between a sheet of paper and a wool blanket.
There are thousands of touch receptors inside skin. When you touch the remote control, the receptors
send information about the remote's temperature, thickness, and feel of the buttons to your brain. Your
brain makes decisions about what to do with the remote control. But here's hoping your brain would never
tell you to turn the channel while the Skin show is on...right?
The Sun is huge. It's bigger than huge. It's so big that 1.3 million Earths would fit inside a hollowed-out
Sun. It's really far away, too - about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) Even at that distance the Sun
affects everything on Earth. All the energy we have comes, or once came from, the Sun. That includes
energy to light a lamp, energy to kick a soccer ball, and energy in batteries that play your personal stereo.
We're talking about nearly all of the energy. There's a little bit of energy that comes from nuclear reactions
deep in the Earth's core. But that energy pales compared with the nuclear fusion fueling the Sun. Without
the Sun, the Earth would be a big hunk of rock with nearly nothing on it.
The Sun is made of gas. It has so much gravity that it's atoms are smashed into hot gas. In the sun, atoms
of gas are constantly crashing into each other. When they collide, they form new atoms and release energy.
Scientists call this atom smashing "nuclear fusion," and it gives off a lot of energy. A very small portion
of this energy beams straight through space to Earth, giving living things like us the power to live, grow
Bill Nye teaches us about reptiles.
Bill shows how he invented a item that pells a banana.
Bill Nye's going to use the force to pull you into the world of balance.
A force is a push or a pull. You can feel a force when someone pushes you. You can use a force to pull a door shut. Anyone can make forces by pushing and pulling, and you don't need to be Luke Skywalker to use a force.
In a game of tug-of-war, if the pull of your team is the same as the pull of the other team, the forces are equal. The two teams are in balance, and the rope doesn't budge. Things are in balance when forces that are pushing or pulling them are equal.
If your tug-of-war team pulls harder than the other team, the forces are not equal. The other team falls all over the place. Unequal forces make things move and twist. A lot of things are designed to take advantage of unequal forces. Wrenches, screwdrivers, door handles, and water faucets use forces made by you to do work.
A well-balanced science diet starts with Bill Nye.
Let the moon master Bill Nye teach you the ancient and not-so-ancient secrets of the Moon.
Wax on, wax off. The Moon grows bigger (waxes) and smaller (wanes) every 30 days or so. The word
"month" comes from the word "moon". The Moon is the closest thing in space to Earth, and it's one of
the most well-studied orbs in our solar system. We know that Moon rocks are rich in calcium and aluminum,
that the Moon has no atmosphere, and that there are over a million craters on the Moon's surface. The
Moon doesn't glow on its own, it reflects sunlight.
Watch the Moon every night for a month as it grows, shrinks, and at one point disappears. The Moon
doesn't actually change it's shape. It's the way the sun shines on the part of the Moon we see that makes
the phases change. The Earth moves around the Sun, the Moon moves around the Earth. As the Moon
moves through its orbit, the Sun shines on bigger or smaller portions of it. If you were looking at the Moon
from the Sun, it would always be full, as long as the Earth weren't in the way.
Bill Nye and the Moon - it's lunar lunacy.
Bill Nye is going through a phase - a phase of matter. Check out the "Phases of Matter" episode
to find out about rock-solid solids, liquidy liquids, and gassy gases. It's phase-tastic!
Everything around us is made of stuff called matter, and all matter is made of atoms. Matter is anything
that comes in three varieties, what scientists call phases. There are solids like rocks, cookies, and desks.
There are liquids like water, honey, and juice. And there are gases, we breathe air and the helium in
balloons. The main difference between the three phases is how fast the matter's atoms move.
All atoms move around because they have energy. The more energy that's in something, the faster the
atoms move. Atoms in an ice cube don't move very much - they're frozen in place. The atoms in liquid
water slip and slide around - that's why you can pour it and spill it. Water vapor atoms are moving pretty
fast - that's why they float around in air (a mixture of other gasses). Changing an object's phase of matter
is just a matter (ha, ha) of adding energy to atoms or taking it away.
Heating adds energy to atoms, and cooling takes energy away from atoms. If you fried an ice cube in a
pan on a stove, you would see all three phases of matter - ice cube, liquid water, and water vapor.
Watch the "Phases of Matter" show and your science will be solid!
You can't see them, but they're everywhere even inside Bill Nye. This is not science fiction, it's the
science of cells.
All things that live are made from cells. You can't see them, but every part of your body, including everything
inside your body, is made from cells. Cells eat, they grow, and they make more of themselves (what
scientists call replicate).
There are millions of different types of cells. Dog cells are different from fish cells. Bird cells are different
from your cells. And inside your body, there are many different cells, each one doing a different job to
keep your body going.
Cells may be tiny, but without them, we'd be nothing.
SUMMARY COMING SOON
Feeling a little hungry? Then grab a snack and watch Bill Nye the Science Guy's episode on the
When it comes to eating, all living things depend on other living things. Take a chicken sandwich, for
example. The bread came from plants. So did the lettuce and tomatoes. The cheese was made from milk,
which came from a cow. To make milk, the cow had to stay alive by eating grass. The meat came from
a chicken who once ate seed, and maybe the occasional bug. The animals that helped to make your
sandwich depended on other living things to survive. The lettuce, grain (for the bread), and tomato got
by fine on their own. Then some animal came along (you).
Plants are the only big living things that don't need other living things to survive. All they need are sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water to make their own food. But it doesn't stop them from being eaten -- no way.
In fact, plants are great things to eat. All animals need them in some way for food ï¿½ by the way, don't
forget that, without plants, there would be no oxygen to breathe.
The lives of living things are intertwined -- that's why we scientists call it a food web. Mice are eaten by
bats, snakes, birds, and foxes, to name a few. Insects are eaten by other insects, birds, snakes, cats, rats,
raccoons, and even humans. All living things on the Earth's surface need plants. The cool part about the
food web is that living things are made of other living things. It's a cycle -- you're either eating or being
Bill Nye the Science Guy will get you all tangled up in the food web.