How breathing supplies the body with the oxygen it needs
Bill Nye explains the atmosphere and the layers that compose it.
Bill Nye teaches us about reptiles.
Bill Nye talks about forests all over the world. He also explains the various parts of the forest and how they all link together.
Bill Nye looks at how the brain controls the body and stores information
The Sun is huge. It's bigger than huge. It's so big that 1.3 million Earths would fit inside a hollowed-out
Sun. It's really far away, too - about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) Even at that distance the Sun
affects everything on Earth. All the energy we have comes, or once came from, the Sun. That includes
energy to light a lamp, energy to kick a soccer ball, and energy in batteries that play your personal stereo.
We're talking about nearly all of the energy. There's a little bit of energy that comes from nuclear reactions
deep in the Earth's core. But that energy pales compared with the nuclear fusion fueling the Sun. Without
the Sun, the Earth would be a big hunk of rock with nearly nothing on it.
The Sun is made of gas. It has so much gravity that it's atoms are smashed into hot gas. In the sun, atoms
of gas are constantly crashing into each other. When they collide, they form new atoms and release energy.
Scientists call this atom smashing "nuclear fusion," and it gives off a lot of energy. A very small portion
of this energy beams straight through space to Earth, giving living things like us the power to live, grow
Bill Nye's going to use the force to pull you into the world of balance.
A force is a push or a pull. You can feel a force when someone pushes you. You can use a force to pull a door shut. Anyone can make forces by pushing and pulling, and you don't need to be Luke Skywalker to use a force.
In a game of tug-of-war, if the pull of your team is the same as the pull of the other team, the forces are equal. The two teams are in balance, and the rope doesn't budge. Things are in balance when forces that are pushing or pulling them are equal.
If your tug-of-war team pulls harder than the other team, the forces are not equal. The other team falls all over the place. Unequal forces make things move and twist. A lot of things are designed to take advantage of unequal forces. Wrenches, screwdrivers, door handles, and water faucets use forces made by you to do work.
A well-balanced science diet starts with Bill Nye.
Bill Nye's not here to bug you - he just wants to tell you about insects.
Do you know when you're looking at an insect? All insects have six legs, three body segments, antennae, and an exoskeleton. Insects don't have bones. Instead, they have hard shells called exoskeletons. Like a little suit of armor, an exoskeleton protects the insect's body and also keeps it from drying out. Although people call any crawling critter with an exoskeleton a "bug", the "true bugs" are insects that have special mouth parts for piercing and sucking. And, spiders are not bugs or even insects. They're built differently with only two main body parts and eight legs instead of six.
If you think you have a wild time growing up, take a look at an insect's life. Most insects go through at least four stages of growth -- egg (little round thing), larva (a bit like a worm), pupa (insect in a cocoon), and adult. It's a long road to maturity for an insect.
Everyone's buzzing about the "Insects" episode. Don't miss it.
Things sure are heating up at Nye Labs.
Snow cones, flowers, hot dogs, people -- everything is made of molecules. No matter what they're in, solid, liquid, or gas, molecules are always moving, even if just a little bit. The speed of the molecules depends on their temperature. Cold things have slow-moving molecules, while hot things have fast-moving molecules. In fact, temperature is really a measurement of molecule speed. For a cold thing to get warm, its molecules have to speed up.
Heat moves in three different ways -- conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the flow of heat between two solid objects that are touching. Heat conducts from your warm fingertips into a cold can of soda. Convection is the transfer of heat with a liquid or gas. A hot bath feels warm all over not just where you're sitting. Convection also happens naturally. When air gets warmed by a hot burner, it's molecules speed up and spread out. Then, cold air molecules squeeze the warm spread-out molecules up. That's why people say hot air rises. It's natural convection. Radiation is when heat beams or radiates from a warm object to cold surroundings. Sit in front of a window at night. Hold your hand up with your palm facing the window, then twist your wrist so your palm faces inside. You'll feel the heat radiate from your hand into the dark outside.
Bill Nye the Science Guy shows you that the science of heat is hot.
Surf's up! Get the current information as Bill Nye explains
why oceans are salty and explores the ocean currents.
Go with the flow of ocean currents with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Most of the Earth is covered with water - we're talking 71% of the entire Earth, and most of that water is in oceans. It depends how you count, but you cay say that there are five oceans on Earth - the Atlantic, the Pacific, the Indian, the Arctic, and the Antarctic. They are all connected into one World Ocean by the flow of ocean currents.
Ocean water is moving around all the time. Some of the moving water forms rivers in the ocean.
Oceanographers, scientists who study oceans, call these rivers of ocean water "currents". Currents help sea animals move around, they bring up deep ocean water with lots of nutrients for small animals to eat, and they push warm and cold water around, creating different climates in the oceans.
As the sea surface gets warmed by the Sun, water evaporates, but salt stays in the sea. The salt makes the water heavier, and it sinks, squeezing other masses of water up. Wind blowing over sea drags huge expanses of ocean water all over the planet. Without ocean currents, our weather, our world, would look very different.
In the sea of science shows, the Science Guy show knows how to flow.
In this show, you can Bone up on Muscles.
When you clicked on the Nye Labs web site to read this, you used your bones and muscles. Without them,
you can't click, surf, or even sigh. Bones and muscles work together, or you aren't going anywhere.
Muscles always pull, even when you push on something like a door somewhere in your body your arm
and leg muscles are in tension. They are all attached to bones, and those bones are pushing; they're in
compression. By pulling on bones you can breathe, talk, and move all over the world.
Your bones support your weight like beams of steel or wood. They're stiff and strong. Rigid as they might
seem though, they do flex. And, if you bang one hard enough, it swells up. You have a lump. That's because
bones are full of blood vessels. Bones are not solid like rocks or skeletons in a dinosaur museum. Bones
flex and grow. In fact, putting healthy amounts of stress on your bones is good for them. The flexing helps
them get nutrients and stay strong through your whole life
Your muscles are bundles of fibers. As you use your muscles, the fibers absorb nutrients from your blood.
If you work your muscles hard, your muscle cells absorb extra nutrients and they grow strong. Bones and
muscles let us push, pull, breathe, and dance. Go flex your muscles. You'll know it's good for you; you'll
feel it in your bones.
Bill Nye uses his bones and muscles to pull you into this show!
Don't stay in the dark - Bill Nye will help you absorb the science of light optics.
Light is energy that normally moves in a straight line, but often something gets in the way. When light runs
into something, three things can happen - the light can bounce off, it can go through, or it can be absorbed.
Often all three things happen at the same time.
Light bounces off mirrors. You see yourself in a mirror when light bounces off your face, into the mirror,
and then into your eyes. Light goes through glass. If the glass is bent or curved, the light gets bent on
its way out of the glass. The glass in a magnifying glass or a pair of eyeglasses is curved so that it bends
light, making things look bigger. More light is absorbed by dark-colored things than by light-colored things.
Colors are made when some light is absorbed while other light is bounced back. Black things look black
because when light hits them, they absorb almost all of the light. In outer space, there are objects with
so much mass, so much material in them, that their gravity can bend the path of beams of light.
Be sure to brighten your day with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Feeling a little hungry? Then grab a snack and watch Bill Nye the Science Guy's episode on the
When it comes to eating, all living things depend on other living things. Take a chicken sandwich, for
example. The bread came from plants. So did the lettuce and tomatoes. The cheese was made from milk,
which came from a cow. To make milk, the cow had to stay alive by eating grass. The meat came from
a chicken who once ate seed, and maybe the occasional bug. The animals that helped to make your
sandwich depended on other living things to survive. The lettuce, grain (for the bread), and tomato got
by fine on their own. Then some animal came along (you).
Plants are the only big living things that don't need other living things to survive. All they need are sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water to make their own food. But it doesn't stop them from being eaten -- no way.
In fact, plants are great things to eat. All animals need them in some way for food ï¿½ by the way, don't
forget that, without plants, there would be no oxygen to breathe.
The lives of living things are intertwined -- that's why we scientists call it a food web. Mice are eaten by
bats, snakes, birds, and foxes, to name a few. Insects are eaten by other insects, birds, snakes, cats, rats,
raccoons, and even humans. All living things on the Earth's surface need plants. The cool part about the
food web is that living things are made of other living things. It's a cycle -- you're either eating or being
Bill Nye the Science Guy will get you all tangled up in the food web.
Bill's all charged up about the "Static Electricity" show.
It happens to all of us. You're causally walking along, maybe dragging your feet a little, when you reach
out to shake a friend's hand and - ZAP! Both you and your friend get shocked. The spark is static electricity,
a buildup of charged electrons.
Electrons are a part of all atoms, the building blocks of all stuff, including you and me. All electrons have
a negative charge. Negatively charged electrons push away from other negatively charged electrons. Like
charges repel each other. When electrons build up in an area, a charge builds up, and it's just waiting to
be released. This buildup of charge is called static electricity.
Charges can jump around between things, especially when things are rubbed together. When you drag
your feet on the carpet, electrons from the carpet jump onto you. As the charge builds up, the electrons
get too close to each other, and they need a place to escape. They get their chance when you touch
something or someone else. The electrons jump onto your pal, making both of you jump at the electric
Watch the "Static Electricity" episode ï¿½ it's shocking!.
Bill is practically exploding with excitement about the "Chemical Reactions" show.
Every single thing around you is made of chemicals. Plants, rocks, computers, food, and you are bunches
of chemicals. All chemicals are built with elements, the 109 different symbols on the Periodic Table. Different
combinations of elements make different chemicals.
Lots of times, chemicals just sit around, but sometimes, when certain chemicals get together, they react.
Chemical reactions take the starting chemicals and end up with new chemicals. Sometimes chemical
reactions are hard to miss. Explosions, burning, color changes, and gas are all good signs that a reaction
is going on. Some chemical reactions are less obvious - changes in temperature, a different smell, or
differences in taste are clues that a chemical reaction is happening. The key is to figure out if you could
get back the same chemicals you put in. If the answer is no, you've got a chemical reaction on your hands.
Just be sure to wash it off!
With Bill Nye the Science Guy, chemical reactions are a blast.
It's time for a heart-to-heart talk about blood and circulation with Bill Nye the Science Guy.
Your blood is your bud. Without blood, your skin would dry up and fall off, your internal organs would die,
and your brain would be kaput. Blood gives every cell in your body the food and oxygen it needs to survive.
Blood also cleans up after our cells by carrying away waste. Blood even protects your body from disease.
What more could you ask from a friend?
Blood patrols your entire body. Blood is pushed around by a powerful pump called the heart. Every time
your heart lub-dubs, blood is propelled through tubes called arteries, capillaries, and veins. Your heat
pushes your blood in a complete loop around your body about 2,000 times every day.
Your heart is a muscle, and, like all muscles, it can get stronger. A healthy heart needs exercise to stay
strong. An average heart pumps about 70 times a minute, but a healthy, well-exercised heart pumps 50
or 60 times a minute. Healthy hearts don't have to work as hard to move your blood around. Now that's
Be sure to watch the "Blood and Circulation" episode, because Bill Nye really takes science to heart.
Some answers, my friend, do in fact, blow in the wind.
A cool breeze is great on a hot summer day. A cold winter wind can chill you until you can't stop shivering.
Where does all that wind come from? It starts with the Sun. Energy from the Sun warms the Earth and
the atmosphere, the air, above it. As the world turns into darkness each night, the atmosphere cools off.
The molecules in a mass of warm air are more spread out than the molecules of air in a cold air mass.
So cold air is heavier than warm air. Cool air masses squeeze warm air up. That's why you may hear
people say, "Warm air rises." The Sun warms the Earth with huge amounts of heat each day. And, the
Earth is spinning. So, as air masses move up and down, they get nudged sideways along the Earth's
surface at the same time. Try drawing a straight line on a spinning ball. It'll curve. The same thing happens
to make wind.
Air travels all over the Earth moving across deserts, up and down mountains, through valleys, and over
the oceans. These features churn the atmosphere and make wind as well, picking up and releasing water.
That's why it rains, snows, sleets, and hails.
To survive, we humans have to handle tornadoes, hurricanes, and typhoons every year. There is a huge
amount of energy in the wind. That's why humans harness the wind's energy with sails, wind turbines
(windmills), and kites.
What Bill Nye will show about the wind will blow you away.
They're on your refrigerator, they're inside your computer, and you're even standing on one right
now. They're magnets, and forget about being repulsed. Bill Nye the Science Guy's "Magnetism" episode
is totally attractive.
All magnets have certain things in common. All magnets have two poles - north and south. You could
take a magnet and break it into pieces and all of the pieces would have north and south poles. Ever play
with two magnets? If you hold them with one magnet's north pole facing the other's south pole, they will
stick together. If you put two of the same poles together, the magnets will push apart. With magnets,
opposite poles attract, and "like" poles repel.
Ever wonder why the Earth has a North and South Pole? The Earth's hot, churning, iron core is like a giant
magnet. The magnetic force of the Earth stops a lot of harmful radiation from reaching us. Charged
particles streaming from the Sun get pulled down by the Earth's magnetic field, creating the Northern and
Southern Lights. Near the Arctic and Antarctic the sky often glows with beautiful colors. Magnets are used
to make electricity. Video and audio cassette tapes are made with plastic that is magnetized. Computer
disks store data with magnetized coatings. Television screens control beams of electrons with magnets.
All compasses have a magnet inside that lines up with the Earth's magnet.
Don't forget to watch the "Magnetism" show - Bill Nye's science can really stick with you.