In this episode, Bill talks about Motion and how it works.
What is the difference between a lake and a pond? Where does the water in a lake or pond come from? What happens when a lake overflows? How do lakes and ponds support a myriad of lifeforms? Bill Nye the Science Guy answers these questions and many more.moreless
Topics include arteries, chambers and the importance of keeping heart healthy. We even get to see a sonogram of Bill's heart.
Bill Nye discusses how animals move.
SUMMARY COMING SOON
How breathing supplies the body with the oxygen it needs
Bill Nye explains the atmosphere and the layers that compose it.
The Sun is huge. It's bigger than huge. It's so big that 1.3 million Earths would fit inside a hollowed-out
Sun. It's really far away, too - about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) Even at that distance the Sun
affects everything on Earth. All the energy we have comes, or once came from, the Sun. That includes
energy to light a lamp, energy to kick a soccer ball, and energy in batteries that play your personal stereo.
We're talking about nearly all of the energy. There's a little bit of energy that comes from nuclear reactions
deep in the Earth's core. But that energy pales compared with the nuclear fusion fueling the Sun. Without
the Sun, the Earth would be a big hunk of rock with nearly nothing on it.
The Sun is made of gas. It has so much gravity that it's atoms are smashed into hot gas. In the sun, atoms
of gas are constantly crashing into each other. When they collide, they form new atoms and release energy.
Scientists call this atom smashing "nuclear fusion," and it gives off a lot of energy. A very small portion
of this energy beams straight through space to Earth, giving living things like us the power to live, grow
Feeling a little hungry? Then grab a snack and watch Bill Nye the Science Guy's episode on the
When it comes to eating, all living things depend on other living things. Take a chicken sandwich, for
example. The bread came from plants. So did the lettuce and tomatoes. The cheese was made from milk,
which came from a cow. To make milk, the cow had to stay alive by eating grass. The meat came from
a chicken who once ate seed, and maybe the occasional bug. The animals that helped to make your
sandwich depended on other living things to survive. The lettuce, grain (for the bread), and tomato got
by fine on their own. Then some animal came along (you).
Plants are the only big living things that don't need other living things to survive. All they need are sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water to make their own food. But it doesn't stop them from being eaten -- no way.
In fact, plants are great things to eat. All animals need them in some way for food ï¿½ by the way, don't
forget that, without plants, there would be no oxygen to breathe.
The lives of living things are intertwined -- that's why we scientists call it a food web. Mice are eaten by
bats, snakes, birds, and foxes, to name a few. Insects are eaten by other insects, birds, snakes, cats, rats,
raccoons, and even humans. All living things on the Earth's surface need plants. The cool part about the
food web is that living things are made of other living things. It's a cycle -- you're either eating or being
Bill Nye the Science Guy will get you all tangled up in the food web.
Bill is practically exploding with excitement about the "Chemical Reactions" show.
Every single thing around you is made of chemicals. Plants, rocks, computers, food, and you are bunches
of chemicals. All chemicals are built with elements, the 109 different symbols on the Periodic Table. Different
combinations of elements make different chemicals.
Lots of times, chemicals just sit around, but sometimes, when certain chemicals get together, they react.
Chemical reactions take the starting chemicals and end up with new chemicals. Sometimes chemical
reactions are hard to miss. Explosions, burning, color changes, and gas are all good signs that a reaction
is going on. Some chemical reactions are less obvious - changes in temperature, a different smell, or
differences in taste are clues that a chemical reaction is happening. The key is to figure out if you could
get back the same chemicals you put in. If the answer is no, you've got a chemical reaction on your hands.
Just be sure to wash it off!
With Bill Nye the Science Guy, chemical reactions are a blast.
They're on your refrigerator, they're inside your computer, and you're even standing on one right
now. They're magnets, and forget about being repulsed. Bill Nye the Science Guy's "Magnetism" episode
is totally attractive.
All magnets have certain things in common. All magnets have two poles - north and south. You could
take a magnet and break it into pieces and all of the pieces would have north and south poles. Ever play
with two magnets? If you hold them with one magnet's north pole facing the other's south pole, they will
stick together. If you put two of the same poles together, the magnets will push apart. With magnets,
opposite poles attract, and "like" poles repel.
Ever wonder why the Earth has a North and South Pole? The Earth's hot, churning, iron core is like a giant
magnet. The magnetic force of the Earth stops a lot of harmful radiation from reaching us. Charged
particles streaming from the Sun get pulled down by the Earth's magnetic field, creating the Northern and
Southern Lights. Near the Arctic and Antarctic the sky often glows with beautiful colors. Magnets are used
to make electricity. Video and audio cassette tapes are made with plastic that is magnetized. Computer
disks store data with magnetized coatings. Television screens control beams of electrons with magnets.
All compasses have a magnet inside that lines up with the Earth's magnet.
Don't forget to watch the "Magnetism" show - Bill Nye's science can really stick with you.
Take time to digest this show.
They say that your food is no more inside you than a pencil is inside a donut, when it's poked through
the hole. Instead of the food going in you, food goes through you. But, all the energy you get to live and
grow comes from your food. All the chemicals that become your body and brain as you get bigger, come
from your food. You get these vital chemicals through a process called "digestion." Your body breaks
food down and grabs all the nutrients you need from it. Then, your body gets rid of what's left over.
Digestion starts in your mouth. You begin breaking food down by breaking it into pieces with your teeth
and jaw muscles. Your saliva (your spit) is full of chemicals that react with the chemicals in food and
make them break apart. Then you swallow. Your food goes down a tube (your esophagus) to your stomach,
where powerful hydrochloric acid breaks it down further into a mushy mash we call chime (kime). From
there, the chime goes into your intestines, and that's where your body starts to absorb the nutrients you
need. Eating is complicated. For your body to have energy to do work, your digestive system has to do
some work. So take care of it. Then, you'll have energy to play.
Chew it up; soak it in acid; use those chemicals to watch Bill.
Next time you throw a ball in the air, and it doesn't fly off into outer space, thank gravity.
Right now, you and everything in the room where you are, is getting pulled down by gravity. If you don't
believe it, push a book of your desk. It will go plummeting toward the center of the Earth. It's gravity. The
Earth's mass, the stuff it's made of, creates gravity. It's pulling down on you and every other object you
can see; it's even pulling down on the air and the ocean. Not only that, you and every atom of every thing
around you has gravity. So, the objects and atoms are all, ever so slightly, pulling up on the Earth!
Without gravity, there would be no weight. When you step on a bathroom scale, the scale is getting
squeezed between you and the Earth. The scale measures how strong this mutual attraction is. Gravity
makes a force that pulls objects together.
Not only is gravity pulling on every atom and molecule of everything around us, it pulls over huge, gigantic
distances. The planets are held in the orbits around the Sun by gravity. The Sun's mass and the mass of
the Earth create enough gravity to hold us in orbit, even though we're 150 million kilometers away. The
gravity for the Earth, all the other planets in our Solar System, and all the stars and galaxies in the Universe
has been pulling steadily for billions of years.
Since gravity only pulls, and since gravity pulls on every speck of matter, when there's enough matter in
one place like a planet or moon, gravity makes them form into a ball or sphere. The reason the Earth, the
Moon, the Sun, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto are all round is that their own gravity pulls evenly in all directions
Bill Nye pulls you into this showï¿½ with Gravity!
Don't just go with the flow. Settle down on the crust.
Imagine a world without any crust. There would be no pies, just goopy filling, no bread, no hamburger
buns, and no you or me. That's right. You, and every living thing we know of, live on or in the Earth's crust.
And, living things need the Earth's crust to survive. Let's look at the science of the surface.
By carefully studying the Earth's surface, scientists have discovered that the Earth is made up of gigantic
layers. At the center of the Earth, there is a core ï¿½ a big ball of solid metal mostly iron.
The core is surrounded by a layer of liquid iron and other minerals. We usually just call it the outer core.
The next layer, around the outer core is called the mantle. You may have seen a mantle above a fireplace.
Well, the mantle is above the Earth's hot core places. The mantle is gooey hot nearly melted rock that
flows the way asphalt does on a hot summer day. Scientists often say that the mantle is plastic. It bends.
We call the mantle's nearly liquid rock magma. When magma flows onto the surface, on top of the crust,
we call it lava.
The Earth's crust is thin, only about 100 kilometers thick. If the Earth were the of a peach, the crust
would only be as thick as the peach's skin (and not as fuzzy). If the Earth hadn't cooled enough for the
crust to form on its surface, we wouldn't be here. Neither would any living thing we know of.
Scientists have never been able to dig or drill down through the crust to the mantle. Driving 100 kilometers
is easy. Drilling that far through solid rock is hard. Well, it's solid rock. But, we can study the inside of the
Earth by observing volcanoes and geysers. The heat that melts rock into magma, and turns underground
water into steam, comes from under the crust.
We haven't even begun to scratch the surface. Watch Bill Nye the Science Guy to find out more about
"The Earth's Crust."