Anybody working with cows will find the shot of the empty cargo bay, with neat little piles of cow manure despite a herd of the animals milling around in there for days, highly suspect. Also, one of the cows kicks a cow patty as they exit, showing it is a solid form and not at all mushy and a real one would be.
Simon's comment about Book's injury being the "first decent wound" doesn't make much sense since Mal was badly injured previously in "Out of Gas" and Simon ended up treating him. However, this episode was actually filmed and produced prior to that one but aired out of sequence by Fox, explaining the apparent continuity error.
Zoë: Knew a man who had a hole clean through his whole shoulder, once. Used to keep a spare hankie in there.
River: Liou koe shway duh biao-tze huh hoe-tze duh bun ur-tze.
(Ignorant son of a drooling harlot and a monkey)
Mal: I've gotta say, doctor, your talent for alienating folk is near miraculous.
Simon: Yes, I'm very proud.
River: (to Simon) I remember everything, and some of it's made up and some of it can't be quantified but I understand. You gave up everything you had to find me, you found me broken. It's hard for you.
Simon and River's Dad: Language, young man.
Young Simon: Sorry, Dad. The Independents attacked us with dinosaurs.
Young River: Simon lost his head in the heat of battle.
Simon and River's Dad: Since there were dinosaurs involved, I think we'll let it slide.
Young River: (playing "Alliance and Independents") We're in trouble. We got cut off.
Young Simon: Cut off from what?
Young River: Our platoon, Simon. We got outflanked by the Independent squad, and we're never going to make it back to our platoon. We need to resort to cannibalism.
Young Simon: That was fast.
Simon: I'm sorry, Dad. You know I would never have tried to save River's life if I had known there was a dinner party at risk.
Book: I am a shepherd. Folks like a man of God.
Mal: No they don't. Men of God make everyone feel guilty and judged.
Patron: This is a holy cleansing. You cannot think to thwart God's will.
Mal: Y'all see the man hanging out of the spaceship with the really big gun? I'm not saying y'all weren't easy to find. But it was kinda out of our way, and he didn't want to come in the first place. Man's lookin' to kill some folk. So really, it's his will y'all should worry about thwarting.
Mal: (trying to avoid cow deposits) This is the last time. The last time with cows. Hey, there's an idea regarding beagles? They have smallish droppings?
Zoe: I believe so, sir.
Inara: What is this? A duck?
Kaylee: It's a swan. I like it.
Inara: You do?
Kaylee: Looks like it was made with, you know, longing. Made by a person who really longed to see a swan.
Inara: Perhaps because they'd only heard of them by rough description.
Zoe: You sanguine about the kind of reception we're out to receive on an Alliance ship, captain?
Mal: Absolutely. What's "sanguine" mean?
Zoe: Sanguine: "Hopeful". Plus, point of interest, it also means "bloody".
Mal: Well, that pretty much covers all the options, don't it?
River: They weren't cows inside. They were waiting to be, but they forgot. Now they see sky and they remember what they are.
Mal: Is it bad that what she said made perfect sense to me?
Zoe: Next time we smuggle stock, let's make it something smaller.
Wash: Yeah, we should start dealing in those black-market beagles.
Doralee: A place like this might be good for your sister. Quiet, safe, a place where folks take care of each other.
Simon: Mmmm, yes, seems like a lovely little community of kidnappers.
Mal: It looks like we arrived just in the nick of time. What does that make us?
Zoe: Big damn heroes, sir.
Mal: Ain't we just.
Simon: Captain, why did you come back for us?
Mal: You're on my crew.
Simon: Yeah, but you don't even like me. Why'd you come back?
Mal: You're on my crew. Why are we still talking about this?
Simon: So finally a decent wound on this ship and I missed out.
Mal: Well, you were busy trying to get yourself lit on fire. It happens.
Patron: The girl's a witch.
Mal: Yeah, but she's our witch. So cut her the hell down.
Zoe: The captain'll come up with a plan.
Kaylee: That's good, right?
Zoe: Apparently you're not recalling some of his previous plans.
Jayne: ('reading' from Simon's journal) "Dear Diary. Today I was pompous and my sister was crazy. Today we were kidnapped by hillfolk, never to be seen again. It was the best day ever!"
Book: I might be needing a preacher.
Mal: That's good, you just lay there and be ironic.
Jayne: Here we go.
Mal: It never goes smooth. How come it never goes smooth?
Mal: (talking about cows) Milk and hay, three times a day, fed to them by beautiful women.
Jayne: That was something to see.
Simon: I'm very sorry (River) tipped off anyone about your cunningly concealed herd of cows.
Mal: I'm starting to think you have a little too much time on your hands, doctor.
Mal: You know, they move just as fast if you lead 'em.
Jayne: I like smacking them.
Mal: Soon as we unload, she can holler until our ears bleed. But I'd take it as a kindness if she didn't.
River: The human body can be drained of blood in 8.6 seconds given adequate vacuuming systems.
Mal: See - morbid and creepifying, I got no problem with, long as she does it quiet like.
The "Previously on Firefly" clips at the beginning show several scenes, mostly of Book and Simon, that we haven't previously seen on Firefly. They're from episodes that were produced prior to this episode, but the audience hasn't seen yet since Fox is showing them out of order.
Doralee: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
Doralee quotes from the Bible, Exodus 22:18 in the King James version.