The abandoned city that Section 9 runs their training exercise in is actually the Niihama Refugee Residential District. Chief Aramaki will visit the area in episode 22 "SCANDAL". The District, and the Asian refugees that reside there, will be seen more often in 2nd GIG.
The two books that have been alluded to so far in the series, Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, are classics in American literature. Also, both had at one time been banned at various schools within the United States. While the former was banned for its sexual depictions, the latter was banned for the large amount of swearing.
Tachikoma 1: I've got a better idea of the internal design, but it looks like this thing's not equipped with any autonomous functions to output its condition to the outside.
Tachikoma 2: You mean it can't even talk?
(The Tachikomas circle behind the Operator)
Tachikoma 1: Keep up the good work.
Tachikoma 2: It's nice to see a robot enthusiastic about her duties.
Operator: Ah, what are you up to? I'm responsible for this prototype until the debriefing is over. Don't you Tachikomas even come near it.
Tachikoma 3: We won't do anything.
Operator: Please stop wasting my time with your blatant lies.
Tachikoma 2: You're right. I only tell lies. I never, ever say anything that's true.
Tachikoma 1: A curious dilemma. Because if what it said is true, that means it wasn't lying. And if what it said is false, that would mean that it does tell the truth. How do you resolve this perplexing contradicton?
Operator: Uh. Um, well.
All Three Tachikomas: Well, come on, don't you know, figure it out.
(The Operator malfunctions)
Tachikoma: Well, it's just the way the Major's been looking at us lately. It's kind of scary.
Batou: Scary? But she's always scary. You oughta know that by now.
Japanese Title: 「機械たちの時間」 - 「Kikaitachi no Jikan」
Original Japanese Airdate: January 7th, 2003.
Sniping Device: Alan Turing
At one point, the Tachikomas refer to the sniping device as a "sub-Turing" machine. This is a reference to Alan Turing, a key figure in computer science theory. The Turing Test is a measure of how well a computer system can "think" based on how successfully it may "trick" a human operator at the other end into thinking the system is human.
Soap Box Tachikoma: Animal Farm
The Tachikoma who addresses all of the others is a nod to the book Animal Farm by George Orwell. In the book, the old and wise boar named Old Major shares his visionary dream of self-sufficient animals with the rest of the farm.
Batou's pistol: G26 AV
During the training session, Batou looks at a pistol that he is holding, saying that it's, "accurate. Feels good. That's a fine fit." This weapon is the G33 AV. In 2001, Marui, a Japanese conglomate, asked the producers of the series to advertise their G26 AV. Since the show was set in the future, the producers changed the nomenclature to G33 AV.
There actually exists a G33. The AV, which is short for Advanced Model, was added by the producers for the future G33. In the trial stages at the time, the G33 was sent to various weapons experts wrapped in packaging that had a a picture of Batou on it with the pistol in hand.
"MACHINES DÉSIRANTES": "REVOLT OF THE MACHINES"
The entire episode, right down to Batou's asking his Tachikoma to assist him with the trainees, is a homage to Chapter 4 - "MEGATECH MACHINE 1/REVOLT OF THE ROBOTS" from the 1991 Ghost in the Shell manga by Masamune Shirow.
Helicopter: Section 6
The helicopter at the beginning of the episode is similar to the ones used by Section 6 towards the end of the 1995 movie Ghost in the Shell.
False Logic: "I, Mudd"
The Tachikomas' use of false logic to confuse the Operator, ultimately causing her to malfunction, is similar to the episode
"I, Mudd" from the very first Star Trek series in which Captain Kirk and his team use convoluted reasoning in order to cause a race of androids, who had held the Enterprise crew hostage, to have a nervous breakdown, allowing Kirk and his crew to escape.
Tachikoma Intelligence: Flowers for Algernon
The "brainy" Tachikoma is reading the book Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes which alludes to the Tachikomas quick rise in intelligence. The book is about a mentally challenged janitor named Charlie Gordon who becomes involved in an experiment that allows him to gain intelligence in a short amount of time. Sadly, the effects of the treatment eventually begin to wear off and he returns to the way he was.
Tachikoma Spy: 2001: A Space Odyssey
As the Major and Batou talk about the fate of the Tachikomas at the end of the episode, one Tachikoma eavesdrops and reads their lips. This is a direct reference to the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, written by Arthur C. Clarke and directed by Stanley Kubrick, in which the HAL 9000 supercomputer reads the lips of Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole when they discuss the fate of HAL.
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