The Hatch/B.F. Skinner
Skinner was a behavioral scientist whose work on lab rats has become famous. Placing the rats in a "Skinner Box," each rat was trained to push a "button" to receive food pellets. Eventually, Skinner varied how many pushes each rat would have to perform to receive the food. By the end, no food was given, and the rats would simply continue ceaselessly pushing the button in the expectation that one of the pushes would result in food.
This set up is not unlike the Hatch. A person (the rat) is placed in an enclosed space (the box) and told fatal disaster has struck. The only way to stave off destruction is to enter a code and "push" a button, all the while believing that the result has been achieved with no real proof of it.