Jeremy Bentham: The pseudonym used in this episode refers to the British philosopher and economist (1748-1832) who advocated the concept of utilitarianism, which basically states that the moral worth of an action depends on the greatest good for the greatest amount of people. His work was very influential among the utopian socialists, who sought to build the perfect community.
Jeremy Bentham was a philosopher heavily influenced by the work of the real John Locke (also a philosopher). He came up with the concept of the 'panopticon,' a circular prison where the inmates could be observed by a central observatory without them ever being able to tell if they're being watched or not. This would create a "sentiment of an invisible omniscience" that Bentham claimed would create "a new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind, in a quantity hitherto without example."
A simplified diagram of Bentham's concept looks very much like the symbol of the DHARMA Initiative.