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P vs. NP – an unanswered computer science problem whereas it is easy to use a computer to check the solution to a problem, but impossible to formulate the program for the computer to do so.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle – an aspect of quantum mechanics which states an object cannot be observed without changing what is being observed.
Don and Charlie graduated high school on the same day.
When he was three, Charlie could multiply four digit numbers in his head.
Alan's wife died of cancer (type unknown).
The local news station shown in this episode was Channel 8.
The explanation of the uncertainty principle in this episode has been confused with the so-called observer effect. Both are aspects of quantum mechanics, but the uncertainty principle states the impossibility to measure the value of some pairs of variables (so-called conjugate quantities) like location and speed of a particle at the same time with absolute certainty, while the observer effect states that observing an object always has an effect on the object.
Charlie uses the game "Minesweeper" in this episode not only for his P vs. NP problem, but to determine the pattern of the bank robbers.
Even with all the forward planning they did, how did they manage to get a sniper up on a bridge in minutes to take out the guy with the rocket?
If there's a helicopter getting all these shots on television for Charlie to see, why aren't they pointing at the gunmen to get their identity? More to the point, why aren't the gunmen shooting at the helicopter?
When Don gets shot in his left forearm, it is bandaged. However, later in the episode when he is in the armored truck, the bandage has disappeared. When he has dinner with Charlie and his father it is also missing.
In the long-shot of the car explosion, Don is shown lying with his head to the left, but in the close-up he is looking at the car, so he has to lie the other way round.
Charlie: The FBI's nicknamed them The Charm School Boys, because they are so nice and polite, they don't use weapons or threats. They say please and thank you. They even open doors for other bank customers on their way in or out.
Charlie: Dad, uhm... I've been working on a problem. P vs. NP. It can't be solved.
Alan: I think you knew that when you started.
Charlie: I could work on it forever. Constantly pushing forward, still never reaching an end.
Alan: You know, sometimes you want to think that things don't end. But they do.
Charlie: When Mom was sick, I couldn't stop working on it.
Alan: Yeah, I know. I didn't get it. Uhm... not then. And your brother sure doesn't understand why you spent the last three months of your mother's life working on a math problem. But your... your mother. She understood why. Because she knew how your mind worked.
Alan: Well, it's hard for Don to ask for help. It's really hard for him to ask Charlie.
Don: Wanna hear something wild? When I was in college I played baseball. Charlie could predict the number of walks I was gonna get just by my stance.
Larry: Don't confuse the ability to predict with the ability to control.
Larry: Amita also said that you wouldn't be coming to school for a while... and I just think, you know, considering your teaching schedule, the upcoming semifinals, I mean, it struck me as rather odd, just kind of... entirely unworkable.
Larry: I also have a post-doc who needs help with some references on an article. Maybe you could recommend a couple of math students.
Charlie: Wait, let's clarify. This is the redheaded post-doc, and she rollerblades?
Larry: Yeah, really brilliant theoretician.
Charlie: Forget the undergrads, I'll help her.
Larry: (On the P vs. NP problem) You know that it's considered unsolvable.
Charlie: Well, certainly people who have failed to solve it may think that.
The opening shootout scene was unusually big and difficult to produce for an episodic TV show, but Davis Guggenheim was able to pull it off. At one point, Rob Morrow slipped and fell. Rather than stop the scene, he just started crawling as fast as he could along a wall. A short burst of that shot remained in the final cut and made it seem very real. The scene was shot at a courtyard outside an office building and is used in a lot of TV and movies. One movie was Collateral Damage with Arnold Schwarzennegger.
All the scenes by the koi pond were originally intended to be in other locations. Originally, Charlie and Larry were in an observatory. Later, they were on a rooftop. The producers were looking for locations that captured the idea of observing things from above. However, the producers couldn't get those locations to fit into the shooting schedule. Due to the big action and number of other locations, they couldn't even do any college locations. So they had to make nearly all of those scenes happen at the Eppes house. It was the director, Davis Guggenheim, who thought of having Charlie and Larry watch the fish.
It wasn't explained why Charlie already has access to Don's office without any backstory. This episode was meant to play 4th in order, and didn't explain that Charlie already had clearance. This was revealed in Vector.
The episode was originally due to air 4th, but CBS decided to push it up in the playlist. This was due not only to the high action in the episode, but also as a decent follow-up to the Pilot.
This episode was originally titled Cause & Causality.
Crew Clarifications: Larry Edwards (1st Company Grip), Blake Smith (Assistant to Brooke Kennedy).
Company Credits: The Post Group (Telecine and Assembly), Wildtracks (Post Production Sound Editorial), Momentum Lab (Additional Graphics), Skip Film (Main Title Design)
This episode was rated TV-14 (V).
Czech Republic: June 2, 2008 on TV Nova
Slovakia: October 5, 2009 on JOJ
International Episode Titles:
Czech Republic: Přičinné souvislosti (Causalities)