When I saw first saw this show I was blown-away! Star Trek has dealt with just about every ethical from every possible angle in one episode or another, but this is the first time that the show blatantly dealt with the controversial issue of neonatal male circumcision.
Neonatal male circumcision began as a religious practices, but was later accepted by the medical community for similar reasons to those B'Elanna uses justify geneticly resequencing her daughter. That is, the redundant skin could cause more problems than good. When the Doctor analyses her claim and finds it to be invalid, she reprograms the doctor to believe otherwise. This is similar to real-life claims that physicians of Jewish, Muslim and Christian faiths, all of which were raised to believe that male circumcision was beneficial may be biased (or culturally programmed) in favour of claims of the procedure's medicinal value.
A very brilliant and subtle way to explore the issue without bringing up the controversy that circumcision itself often does when brought to the small screen.